During 1917 and 1918, German occupation stamps were issued for the Military Administration in Romania. The current stamps of Germany, as well as some of the Postage Due and Postal Tax stamps of Romania, were overprinted and / or surcharged.
The M.V.i.R. overprint, used for many of these German and Romanian stamps, stands for "Militärverwaltung in Rumänien" or "Military Administration in Romania".
At the beginning of June 1917, three Germania denominations were overprinted and surcharged in Romanian currency, for use in Romania. All but the 40 Bani on 30 Pf. denomination are shown in the image above.
The surcharges were applied in Berlin and were printed in black ink. The boxed M.V.i.R. overprints were applied in Bucharest. The overprint on the 20 Pf. stamp is in black. The other two denominations were overprinted in red.
At the beginning of July 1917, four Germania definitive stamps were overprinted M.V.i.R. and surcharged in a more appealing format. All but the 15 Pf. denomination are shown in the image above.
German occupation stamps for use in all of Romania were issued on March 1, 1918. Five Germania definitive stamp denominations were overprinted "Rumänien" and surcharged in Romanian currency. They are all shown in the image above.
On July 1, 1918, the 5, 10, 20, 30, and 50 Bani unwatermarked Postage Due stamps of Romania were overprinted with a boxed M.V.i.R. in red. They are not shown here.
The two Postage Due stamps shown above were issued in August of 1918, and they are printed on watermarked paper.
stamp at above right is a Postal Tax Due stamp of Romania. It was
released in September 1918, and it is overprinted in black.
Several varieties of the M.V.i.R. overprint were applied to seven 5 Bani and 10 Bani denomination Postal Tax stamps, as well as some revenue stamps, of Romania, between June 1917 and October 1918. Three of the Postal Tax stamps are shown in the image above. Some of these stamps also exist on both white and grayish papers.
A Postal Tax stamp of Romania (shown above), as well as the 10 Pf., 15 Pf., 20 Pf., and 30 Pf. Germania definitive stamp denominations, were released in March 1918 with a boxed Gültig / 9. Armee overprint. These were issued for use by the postal facilities of the German 9th Army in Romania.
The 30 Pf. overprinted Germania stamp comes in two types, the peacetime printing and the wartime printing, the first of which is very rare.
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